However, the number of people in work also increased, rising by 88,000 in the final three months of 2017.
Scotland still has a better unemployment rate than Wales, at 5%, but worse than England, which sits at 4.3%, and Northern Ireland at 3.9%.
The UK jobless rate increased in the fourth quarter, data from the Office for National Statistics showed Wednesday.
This increased the percentage of people out of work from 4% in the previous quarter to 4.5% - fractionally above the UK-wide total of 4.4%.
The number of workers on zero-hours contracts in their main job fell by 4,000 to 901,000 in the quarter to last December compared with the previous year.
The number of non-UK nationals from European Union countries working in this country increased by 101,000 to 2.35 million, the smallest rise since 2013.
Unemployment rates are calculated by people who are registered looking for work as a proportion of the working age population.
Will Pogba save United?
But this is when the manager's decisions will define United's season: Make the wrong ones and Mourinho and his team could face a long, drawn-out end to the campaign.
"It is a fundamental mistake to make Scotland the highest taxed part of the United Kingdom".
Scottish Liberal Democrat economy spokeswoman Councillor Carolyn Caddick said: "These figures are truly awful".
A spokeswoman for the Scottish Liberal Democrats said "previous boasts of Scottish ministers have come undone".
The Scottish Trades Union Congress said the figures were a "warning sign" for the Scottish economy.
But TUC general secretary Frances O'Grady said the continued squeeze on real terms pay was "pushing families to the brink".
Professor Graeme Roy, director of the Fraser of Allander Institute, added: "This weakening in the labour market is perhaps not that surprising given the relatively fragile performance of the Scottish economy in recent times".